Perkins, H. Wesley, and Alan D. Berkowitz. 1991. "Collegiate COAs and Alcohol Abuse: Problem Drinking in Relation to Assessments of Parent and Grandparent Alcoholism." Journal of Counseling and Development, Vol. 69, No. 3, pp. 237-240.
In a survey of college students (N = 860), significantly greater problem drinking was indicated by students who reported having a parent or grandparent diagnosed or treated for alcoholism.  The highest rates of problem drinking were found among students who reported both an alcoholic parent and grandparent.  Students who had experienced distress and family discord from parental alcohol abuse, though without a diagnosed alcoholic parent, also indicated greater problem drinking.  The increased alcohol problems of students without a diagnosed alcoholic parent, however, were somewhat different from other children of alcoholics (COAs).  Thus, different types of COAs must be considered in research, treatment, and prevention programs.